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Yes. Use an appropriate car seat for your baby in every type of vehicle, and attach it securely with a seat belt or restraint system (like LATCH). It can be cumbersome to carry a car seat around with you, and it takes a few minutes to secure the safety seat correctly, but using one is very important for your child's safety.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children ride rear-facing until they reach the seat's weight and height limits for the rear-facing position, usually around age 4. Always use a car seat (or booster seat when your child gets older) that's appropriate for your child's age and size.
Taxis: Every taxi should have seat belts and top tether anchors to secure a car safety seat properly, just as you would in your own car. In some states it's mandatory to use car seats and seat belts in taxis, but in other states taxis are exempt from the law. When you call for a cab, ask the dispatcher to send one equipped with seat belts and top tether anchors. If the taxi that stops for you on the street is not properly equipped for installing your baby's car seat, hail another cab.
It shouldn't be hard to find a cab that can safely accommodate a car seat: All vehicles manufactured during or after 2000 must have top tether anchors in addition to lap shoulder belts, and all vehicles manufactured during or after 2002 must have lower anchors as well.
Buses: Metropolitan transit and commercial transport buses may or may not have seat belts. When there is a seat belt on the bus, use it to secure your baby in his car seat. Even if there isn't a seat belt on the bus, it may still be more convenient to travel with your baby buckled into a car seat. It may even offer some protection in case of an accident (though there's no data to prove this).
Airplanes: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommend using car seats during flights for children who weigh less than 40 pounds. Make sure your car seat is FAA approved, and ask whether the airline has any specific regulations. For children between 22 and 44 pounds, consider using The CARES Airplane Safety Harness.
Airlines currently don't require you to use a car safety seat or child restraint system, but doing so does improve safety during turbulence and survivable crashes.